Dualism is the view that reality consists of two parts—the physical and the non-physical. Or put another way—the body and the mind. In addition to having a physical body, dualists usually assert that every person has a nonphysical substance called “mind” or “soul.” This “mind” or “soul” is not the same as the physical brain. Dualists often assert that the mind or soul can survive physical death.
Rene Descartes (1596–1650) is the most famous dualist. His form of dualism is referred to as “Cartesian Dualism.”